1. Primary bone cancers
Primary bone cancers are either benign tumors or cancers. Benign tumors can be due to developmental changes, trauma, infections, inflammation, or abnormal tissue growth; they are more common in people under the age of 30.
Examples of benign bone tumors include:
- osteoid osteoma
- giant cell tumor of bone
- aneurysmal bone cyst
- fibrous dysplasia of bone
Examples of malignant primary bone tumors include:
- Ewing’s sarcoma
- malignant fibrous histiocytoma
- other sarcomas
Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that may include one or more bone tumors. Certain bone cancers are found in specific bones; for instance, teratomas and germ cell tumors are frequently located in the tailbone.
Osteosarcoma, the most common bone cancer, usually happens to people ages 10 to 30 and most often starts in the arms, legs, or pelvis. It usually develops in children and young adults. After leukemia and brain tumors, osteosarcoma is the third most common cancer among teens in the United States.
3. Ewing sarcoma
Ewing sarcoma also is more likely to be in kids and young adults. It starts most often in the arms, chest, legs, pelvis, spine and shinbone, or thighbone. It most commonly affects teenagers and young adults.
Chondrosarcoma usually develops in adults. It starts in the cartilage cells and moves on to the bone. People over 40 are more likely to have chondrosarcoma — usually in the arms, legs, or pelvis. Cancers like leukemia that start in marrow tissue in some of your bones aren’t seen as bone cancer
You also may be more likely to get bone cancer if you have certain conditions caused by problem genes. These include a kind of eye cancer called hereditary retinoblastoma, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. And babies born with an umbilical hernia — when part of an intestine or some tissue pokes through a weak spot in their belly — are more likely to get Ewing sarcoma. But the chances of that are very low.
Symptom of bone cancer
When a bone tumor grows, it presses on healthy bone tissue and can destroy it, which causes the following symptoms:
- Pain. The earliest symptoms of bone cancer are pain and swelling where the tumor is located. The pain may come and go at first. Then it can become more severe and steady later. The pain may get worse with movement, and there may be swelling in nearby soft tissue. The pain may come on slowly, starting out as tenderness you feel now and then, and become an ache that doesn’t go away. But this kind of pain can be caused by many things besides cancer, like growing pains and arthritis. See your doctor to find out what’s going on.
- Joint swelling and stiffness. A tumor that occurs near or in a joint may cause the joint to swell and become tender or stiff. This means a person may have a limited and painful range of movement.
- Limping. If a bone with a tumor breaks, or fractures, in a leg, it can lead to a pronounced limp. Limping is usually a symptom of later-stage bone cancer.
- Other less common symptoms. Rarely, people with bone cancer may have symptoms such as fever, generally feeling unwell, weight loss, and anemia, which is a low red blood cell level.
- Chemotherapy, Radiation